IT 2011

There are many barriers still preventing successful integration of ICT in the education system, even though the foundations for successful technology have been made. Both Brown’s (2005) and Ertmer’s (2005) article show that there are differing opinions about the integration of ICT.

There has always been a large debate adjoining the positives and negatives of the integration of technology in schools. Oppenhemier (1997, Brown, 2005) determined that “There is no good evidence that most uses of computers significantly improve teaching and learning” with many people agreeing that ICT would not fit into their pedagogical beliefs. Brown however feels that “the growth of ICT is problematic due to it being pushed to a political and economic spin as opposed to teaching”(Brown, 2005).  Teachers have to reclaim the true status of pedagogy in their education systems and introduce ICT effectively.

Ertmer believes that pedagogical beliefs are preventing the integration of ICT in the classroom. Ertmer also considers that the most effective way to change teachers’ minds and pedagogical beliefs is by supplying to their most immediate needs which should then introduce them to more technology and as it grows, students gain a greater knowledge with open and effective teachers.

Teachers need to see the positive effects of ICT rather than the negatives and how it can be efficiently integrated into classrooms. For students to have the optimal learning experience, teachers need to change their attitude and be more open to ICT.

Which learning style/s does this ICT support?

The learning style that images support is logical-mathematical, visual-spatial and interpersonal learners if used in a group setting.

 How could this ICT be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment?

Images can be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment by providing discussion topics, giving students ideas and opening their eyes to things outside of their everyday life. They can be used in many situations such as the life cycle of a butterfly or explaining a math problem.

How is this ICT enabling the development of creativity?

Images enable the development of creativity by giving students new ideas and generating memories.

References

Brown, M. (2005). The growth of enterprise pedagogy: How ICT policy is infected by neo-liberalism. Australian Educational Computing, 20(2), 16-22.

Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research & Development, 53(4), 25-39.

No Author. (2010) Children should be banned from using computers until age nine, says UK expert. Retrieved 12th April, 2011. http://www.news.com.au/world/children-should-be-banned-from-using-computers-until-age-nine-says-uk-expert/story-e6frfkyi-1225879143520 [IMAGE]

Students today come from a come from a very different generation that the teachers that are teaching them. “They have never known life without computers and the internet are well socially networked and are defined as digital natives” (Handal, 2011). Schools are increasingly using mobile technology to further the students learning as the students are so well adapted to using technology in everyday life, it comes naturally to them. The key to a successful future for students it is essential to make sure that they can easily adapt to future technologies. By including mobile learning in the classroom students have an improved chance of connecting with their learning and gaining skills for their future.

Mobile learning can be described as “the use of hand held objects to make learning available at any given place or time” (Handal, 2011). It supports a multitude of pedagogical theories such as constructivism and socio-cultural allowing students to problem solve, communicate and construct their own understanding. Students have the resources in their hands with their portable devices to be able to unlock their learning.

Most mobile devices are banned from the classrooms by a lot of teachers that have concerns that they are a distraction. In my opinion if a teacher is respected and has a connection with their students than mobile devices should be allowed within the classroom as a learning device. The students should use the mobile devices appropriately and in moderation so they can utilize the device and see how it can help them learn. Although, as cyber bullying is so prominent in today’s society the use of mobile devices needs to be efficiently monitored and consequences need to be outlined and in place in and out of the classroom.

Reference List

Handal, B. (2011). Mobile Learning in Schools. PowerPoint presented at The University of Notre Dame Sydney ED4134 lecture.

No Author.(2010) Weekly Mobile Learning Cartoon. Retrieved Thursday 7th April 2011. http://www.mobl21.com/blog/2010/09/ [IMAGE]

Social constructivism is the “belief that students learn through the facilitation of knowledge from the teacher to the student.  Children build their own knowledge through their own interactions with the environment and thinking processes…It involves a process of discovery, discussion, explanation, negotiation and evaluation.  A constructivist classroom needs to be a safe and caring environment where students can feel comfortable to speak their mind and discuss their thoughts” (Brewer & Daane, 2002).

Many teachers believe in the constructivist theory however this does not necessarily mean that they follow through with the theory in their classroom. Brewer and Daane interviewed eight teachers who taught mathematics from K – 3. They found that the teachers felt the main themes of constructivism were ““learning in an active, constructive process; new knowledge is built on prior knowledge; autonomy is promoted; and social interaction is necessary for knowledge construction and active learning.” (Brewer & Daane, 2002) The interviews also found that the teachers were capable in social constructivism in the classroom as they learnt in their formal training and have the support of each other and the wider school community in their teaching styles.

To make it easier for teachers to depict above theories in the classroom a strong foundation of constructivism and a resilient belief in the teaching style is necessary. In my opinion social constructivism is a great teaching theory to follow and I hope that I am able to represent that teaching style in my own teaching.

Bob the Knight

Which learning style/s does this ICT support?

Sound files support musical and bodily-kinaesthetic learning styles. They also support linguistic learners who can absorb the words and rhythm from the sound file to improve learning.

How could this ICT be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment?

Sound files can be used in a variety of ways as a cognitive tool in the learning environment. 

  • Reward or discipline sounds can be sounded if students are doing well or misbehaving. 
  • Create inspiration and motivation for students in creative writing. 
  • Help in exercise classes as a tool to keep the class quiet in between activities.
  • As a way to display a dry or unexciting topic more engaging.

How is this ICT enabling the development of creativity?

Sound files enable the development of creativity by creating enthusiasm and excitement in the classroom. They can also inspire more creative topics such as creative writing and dance.

Reference List

Brewer, J., & Daane, C, J., (2002). Translating Constructivist Theory into Practice in Primary-Grade Mathematics. Education 123(2), 416-426.

3. ICT as a cognitive tool

Information Computer Technology is becoming a more prominent cognitive tool with videos, graphics and games all becoming the basis for lesson plans and students learning. One of the most efficient ICT cognitive tools in the classroom is Webquests.

“A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the internet, optionally supplemented with videoconferencing.” (Dodge 1995)

Webquests are such an effective cognitive tool as they allow for independent or group self-paced learning. The students are given the freedom to work at their own pace and decide on their own learning, but they need to keep on track with the webquest. Students are given resources to search through on their own accord, thus gaining researching skills needed in the future.

The graphic organiser is also an efficient cognitive tool. It uses programs such as Inspiration to create mind maps for the students. They can be used for a multitude of things such as essay planners and also allow students to express their thoughts in a logical, clear way that can help them remember the information through the connections between pictures and words.

ICT proposes a number of cognitive tools that are used in the classroom to engage students in their learning and help them become more independent. In my opinion, ICT helps students become more confident and proficient. It also, allows students to make their own learning resources and choose which work and make sense for them.

Which learning style/s does this ICT support?

Video clips support a multitude of learning styles including spatial-visual and intrapersonal by interacting with the senses of sight and sound.  Depending on the type of video clip used they may also support logical-mathematical and musical learners.

How could this ICT be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment?

Videos could be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment by engaging students from the beginning, providing students with a direct focus and displaying essential information interestingly. They could provide an overview of a new subject; give key information on topics or events; create self-paced learning through instruction; or provide in depth information. The video must be suitable to the age and stage of the students and relate with the topics being taught.

 How is this ICT enabling the development of creativity?

Videos enable the development of creativity by showing information in interesting and exciting ways and allowing students to visualise what they are learning about. They also allow students to relate words to images and what they saw on the video. 

Reference List

Kopcha, T. (narrator). (2008). Webquest 101 Part 1: What is Webquest? [Internet recording].  Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4rel5qOPvU.

Dodge, B.(1995). Some thoughts about Webquests. http://webquest.sdsu.edu/about_webquests.html]

The Digital Natives debate focuses on the idea that the newer generation, digital natives, were born into a technological age that has a differing way of learning than the previous generations, digital immigrants. This creates the question of whether the traditional teaching methods will become obsolete or if the fundamentals of learning are still the same.

Digital natives are born into a digital world between 1980 and present day. Prensky (2001) considers that the changing technology has changed the way in which students learn and thus changes the way teachers teach. These students prefer graphics, work at a constant fast pace and thrive on rewards. Digital immigrants are adults who were not born in technology, but have had to learn these skills at a later time. Digital immigrants learn differently from digital natives as they prefer to learn/teach slowly, step by step, one thing at a time, individually and seriously.

Digital immigrants’ legacy includes reading, writing, arithmetic, logical thinking, understanding of the writings of the past therefore a traditional curriculum. Digital natives have more of a digital technological content, learning about traditional curriculum as well as ethics, politics, sociology, languages and other things.

Bennett, Maton and Kervin (2008) believe that other articles (including Prensky, 2001) have taken a radical approach to learning and technology and that they have generalized about new generations. Technology is rooted in the lives of digital natives, but they also have different learning styles and skills that do not include technology, therefore they also need to be catered for by the teacher. Digital natives may do things differently, but they are also in need for a combination of BOTH traditional and modern teaching methods.

In my opinion, digital natives may have been born into technology but they are all still unique individuals who have differing wants, needs and learning styles. It would be incorrect to assume the differing generations are completely different in their learning methods. Technology should be used additionally with the legacy knowledge to gain a greater knowledge.

Which learning style/s does this ICT support?

The learning styles graphic organisers supports are logical-mathematical and spatial-visual.  It allows students to portray their ideas in a way that is clear and easy to read as well as creating visual links to their learning.  Creating graphic also allows for intrapersonal and linguistic learning styles to be supported as well.

How could this ICT be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment?

Graphic organisers can be used in a number of ways as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment.  They are ideal for displaying points of views and information dot points, as well in creating essay etc.  It teaches students to display their thoughts in a logical and concise way that makes sense to them and is easy to read.

How is this ICT enabling the development of creativity?

This ICT is enabling the development of creativity by allowing students to connect their thoughts with ease. Students do not have to use words in their graphic organisers they can draw pictures or symbols that make sense to them in the context.

Reference List

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. MCB University Press, 9(5), 1-6.

Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). A ‘Digital Natives’ Debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Education Technology 39(5), 775-786.

There are many current ICT trends, the government has provided funds to help further schools technologically; therefore there has been a commencement of new computer technologies in the classroom and also at home with students. In the past few years many students in schools have been given laptops to aid independent learning and provide equal opportunities for students’ across the education system. As a result of this most library reference materials, subject text books and assigned homework has become digital. This means that teachers are now communicating with students online via blogs, webquests and school intranets and students are interacting with their teachers via email and other electronic means.  

The Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) has become an ICT trend introduced across both school stages; primary and secondary across Australia. An Interactive Whiteboard is a board that connects to a computer in the classroom and becomes a giant touch screen computer. Anyone can interact with the board; it can do anything that is possible on the computer it is connected with. Teachers can create flip charts, show students videos, have discussions and even contact people from another country or just around the corner. There are many websites that provide interactive games and flipcharts that teachers can use as a learning object in the classroom.

Kent (2007) is convinced that teachers are able to promote higher order thinking, create focus and lead into deep class conversations through the above methods. With more add-ons being available in today’s advanced technological times students are becoming more engaged when participating actively in the classroom. It will be extremely interesting to find out what new technologies will be introduced in the coming years and whether the current trend of increased interaction in the classroom increases at a similar pace.

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Which learning style/s does this ICT support?

Online games support multiple differing learning styles depending on the type of game used. A whole class/ smaller groups game would cater to linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial-visual, bodily-kinaesthetic or interpersonal learning styles. A one player game would cater to a linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial-visual or intrapersonal learning style

How could this ICT be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment?

This ICT, online games, can be implemented as a good cognitive tool within the learning environment by engaging students in their learning, allowing them to learn in a less-confronting, fun and precise way. They allow students to learn at their own pace and try again if they get the answer incorrect. As there are so many differing types of online games there are many ways to use this tool in the learning environment.

How is this ICT enabling the development of creativity?

Online games enable the development of creativity by inspiring students to see the differing situations and circumstances in which they can use what they have learnt.

Reference List

Kent, P. (2007). Promoting Intellectual Quality with an IWB: Teacher Professional Development Course Notes.  Paper presented at Latrobe University

Tolley, R.J. (ND). Notes on the use of IWBs in schools. Available: http://www.maximise-ict.co.uk/IWBs.pdf

 Text Book (Kent, 2008) Chapter 1 and Chapter 4 , Chapters 3 and 5

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